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Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R), Updated 2020

CRS-R is a standardized neurobehavioral assessment measure designed for use in patients with disorders of consciousness.  The scale is intended to be used to establish diagnosis, monitor behavioral recovery, predict outcome, and assess treatment effectiveness.



Target Population

People ages 6 and up with disturbance in consciousness caused by acquired brain injury.


The CRS-R consists of 23 items broken into 6 subscales, for a maximum score of 23 points. Subscales are composed of hierarchically arranged items.

  • Auditory
  • Visual
  • Motor
  • Oromotor
  • Communication
  • Arousal Functions


Golden K, Erler KS, Wong J. Giacino JT, Bodien YB. Should consistent command-following be added to the criteria for emergence from the minimally conscious state? Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2022 Sep;103(9):1870-1873. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2022.03.010. Epub 2022 Apr 6. PMID: 35398046

Curley WH, Bodien YG, Zhou DW, Conte MM, Foulkes AS, Giacino JT, Victor JD, Schiff ND, Edlow BL. Electrophysiological correlates of thalamocortical function in acute severe traumatic brain injury. Cortex 2022:152:136-152. ISSN 0010-9452.

Weaver JA, Cogan AM, O'Brien KA, Hansen P, Giacino JT, Whyte J, Bender Pape T, van der Wees P, Mallinson T. Determining the Hierarchy of Coma Recovery Scale-Revised Rating Scale Categories and Alignment with Aspen Consensus Criteria for Patients with Brain Injury: A Rasch Analysis. J Neurotrauma. 2022 Jun 16. doi: 10.1089/neu.2022.0095. Online ahead of print. PMID: 35570725

Onami S, Tran D, Koh-Pham C, Shih W, Chi B, Peng J, Shavlik D, Singh P, Giacino JComa Recovery Scale-Revised Predicts Disability Rating Scale in Acute Rehabilitation of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2023 Feb 1:S0003-9993(23)00053-9. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2023.01.007. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36736600.

Yelena G. Bodien, Camille Chatelle, Alyssa Taubert, Srivatsan Uchani, Joseph T. Giacino, Linda Ehrlich-Jones. Updated Measurement Characteristics and Clinical Utility of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised Among Individuals With Acquired Brain Injury, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Volume 102, Issue 1, 2021, Pages 169-171, ISSN 0003-9993,

Bodien YG, Martens G, Ostrow J, Sheau K, Giacino JT. Cognitive impairment, clinical symptoms and functional disability in patients emerging from the minimally conscious state. NeuroRehabilitation. 2020;46(1):65-74. doi: 10.3233/NRE-192860. PMID: 32039868.

Chatelle C, Bodien YG, Carlowicz C, Wannez S, Charland-Verville V, Gosseries O, Laureys S, Seel RT, Giacino JT. Detection and Interpretation of Impossible and Improbable Coma Recovery Scale-Revised Scores. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2016 Aug;97(8):1295-1300.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2016.02.009. Epub 2016 Mar 2. Erratum in: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2018 Dec;99(12):2649-2650. PMID: 26944708; PMCID: PMC6095641.

Martens G, Bodien Y, Sheau K, Christoforou A, Giacino JT. Which behaviours are first to emerge during recovery of consciousness after severe brain injury? Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2020 Jul;63(4):263-269. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2019 Nov 26. PMID: 31783144.

Martens G, Bodien Y, Thomas A, Giacino J. Temporal Profile of Recovery of Communication in Patients With Disorders of Consciousness After Severe Brain Injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2020 Jul;101(7):1260-1264. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2020.01.015. Epub 2020 Feb 28. PMID: 32113971.

Thibaut A, Bodien YG, Laureys S, Giacino JT. Correction to: Minimally conscious state "plus": Diagnostic criteria and relation to functional recovery. J Neurol. 2020 May;267(5):1255-1259. doi: 10.1007/s00415-020-09760-0. Erratum for: J Neurol. 2020 May;267(5):1245-1254. PMID: 32193597.